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Chemical Engineering


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  1. 6 points
    Arun Gupta


    Version 1.0.0


    A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion and transfers heat to water until it becomes hot water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment and should be treated carefully.Liquid when heated up to the gaseous state this process is called evaporation. The heating surface is any part of the boiler; hot gasses of combustion are on one side and water on the other. Any part of the boiler metal that actually contributes to making steam is heating surface. The amount of heating surface of a boiler is expressed in square meters. The larger the heating surface a boiler has, the more efficient it becomes.
  2. 4 points
    Arun Gupta


    Version 1.0.0


    Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected. Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature and/or pressure. A plant that performs distillation is called a distillery. The apparatus used to perform distillation is called a still. Distillation.mp4
  3. 4 points

    Version 1.0.0


    The course content will be suitable for a wide range of personnel within a cement manufacturing company including junior/middle management, technicians, production and control room staff, etc and also for others who wish to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complete cement manufacturing process.
  4. 3 points



    A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.
  5. 3 points



    Oil refinary processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.
  6. 2 points



    A waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from hot streams with potential high energy content, such as hot flue gases from a diesel generator or steam from cooling towers or even waste water from different cooling processes such as in steel cooling.
  7. 2 points



    Heuristics in Chemical Engineering Rule of Thumb for Engineers Although experienced engineers know where to find information and how to make accurate computations, they also keep a minimum body of information in mind on the ready, made up largely of shortcuts and heuristics. The present compilation may fit into such a minimum body of information, as a boost to the memory or extension in some instances into less often encountered areas. Topics included COMPRESSORS AND VACUUM PUMPS CONVEYORS FOR PARTICULATE SOLIDS COOLING TOWERS CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTION DISINTEGRATION • DISTILLATION AND GAS ABSORPTION A DISTILLATION AND GAS ABSORPTION B DISTILLATION AND GAS ABSORPTION C DRIVERS AND POWER REOCVERY EQUIPMENT DRYING OF SOLIDS • EVAPORATORS EXTRACTION, LIQUID-LIQUID • FILTRATION FLUIDIZATION OF PARTICLES WITH GASES HEAT EXCHANGERS INSULATION MIXING AND AGITATION PARTICLE SIZE ENLARGEMENT PIPING PUMPS REACTORS REFRIGERATION SIZE SEPARATION OF PARTICLES UTILITIES: COMMON SPECIFICATIONS VESSELS (DRUMS) VESSELS (PRESSURE) VESSEL (STORAGE TANKS)
  8. 2 points



    Includes two separate downloads in Adobe Acrobat format: Quiz for Heat Exchanger Selection and Design and Good Practices for Heat Exchanger Selection and Design
  9. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Chemical kinetics is the study and discussion of chemical reactions with respect to reaction rates, effect of various variables, re-arrangement of atoms, formation of intermediates etc. There are many topics to be discussed, and each of these topics is a tool for the study of chemical reactions.
  10. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactor. Frequently the term relates specifically to catalytic reaction systems where either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is present in the reactor. Sometimes a reactor per se is not present by itself, but rather is integrated into a process, for example in reactive separations vessels, retorts, certain fuel cells, and photocatalytic surfaces. The issue of solvent effects on reaction kinetics is also considered as an integral part.
  11. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Contents HEAT TRANSFER LAW APPLIED TO HEAT EXCHANGERS 2 Heat Transfer by Conduction 3 The Heat Conduction Equation 9 Heat Transfer by Convection 12 Forced Convection 12 Natural Convection 14 Heat Transfer by Radiation 15 Overall heat transfer coefficient 18 Problems 22 DESIGN STANDARDS FOR TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS 23 Size numbering and naming 23 Sizing and dimension 27 Tube-side design 32 Shell-side design 33 Baffle type and spacing 33 General design consideration 35 THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN 37 Design of Single phase heat exchanger 37 Kern’s Method 45 Bell’s method 49 Pressure drop inside the shell and tube heat exchanger 57 Design of Condensers 65 Design of Reboiler and Vaporizers 72 Design of Air Coolers9 85 MECHANICAL DESIGN FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS10 88 Design Loadings 88 Tube-Sheet Design as Per TEMA Standards 90 Design of Cylindrical shell, end closures and forced head 91 References 95
  12. 1 point



    A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower: the main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers. Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 meters (660 ft) tall and 100 meters (330 ft) in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 meters (130 ft) tall and 80 meters (260 ft) long. The hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants,[1] although they are also used in some coal-fired plants and to some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air conditioning.
  13. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 °C to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 °C. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.
  14. 1 point
    Arun Gupta

    Fuel And Combustion

    Version 1.0.0


    The various types of fuels like liquid, solid and gaseous fuels are available for firing in boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipments. The selection of right type of fuel depends on various factors such as availability, storage, handling, pollution and landed cost of fuel. The knowledge of the fuel properties helps in selecting the right fuel for the right purpose and efficient use of the fuel. The following characteristics, determined by laboratory tests, are generally used for assessing the nature and quality of fuels.
  15. 1 point

    Version 2.0.0


    Liquid–liquid extraction is also known as solvent extraction and partitioning is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. It is an extraction of a substance from one liquid into another liquid phase.
  16. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Liquid–liquid extraction also known as solventextraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. It is an extraction of a substance from one liquid into another liquid phase.
  17. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used for storage and handling of flammable liquids. Approved safety cans or Department of Transportation approved containers shall be used for the handling and use of flammable liquids in quantities of 5 gallons or less, except that this shall not apply to those flammable liquid materials which are highly viscid (extremely hard to pour), which may be used and handled in original shipping containers. For quantities of one gallon or less, the original container may be used, for storage, use and handling of flammable liquids.
  18. 1 point



    What is Chemical Engineering & difference from chemical process
  19. 1 point

    Version 2


    Separation Trains Azeotropes
  20. 1 point

    Version 1.0.0


    Petroleum Refining Engineering-II Course outline 1. Simplified overall crude oil refinery picture 2. Major refinery products and tests: Brief description 3. Separation process: Atmospheric and vacuum distillations, lube oil extraction, dewaxing, deasphalting, and clay treatment. 4. Catalysts used in refinery operations 5. Conversion processes: Brief description of alkylation, polymerization, isomerization of light paraffins, hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, visbreaking of resids, and coking. 5. Material and energy balances for refinery processes: Simulation of refinery processes 6. Design guidelines for the selected refinery equipment

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