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    let's make our time valuable by exchanging different ideas about any interesting matter
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    From the album Process Flow Diagrams

    Introduction • Ethylene oxide is produced by the oxidation of ethylene using air. • Ethanolamines are produced using the series reaction scheme of ethylene oxide with ammonia. • Ethanolamines are significantly used as absorbents to remove CO2 and H2S from process gas streams. Reactions • C2 H4 + 0.5 O2→ CH2 O.CH2O • Ethylene to air ratio: 3 – 10 % • Side reaction products: CO2 , H2O • Catalyst: Silver oxide on alumina • Operating temperature and pressure: 250 – 300°C and 120 – 300 psi • Supressing agent for side reactions: Ethylene dichloride • Reaction is exothermic • Air and ethylene are separate compressed and along with recycle stream are sent to the shell and tube reactor. • The reactor is fed on the shell side with Dowtherm fluid that serves to maintain the reaction temperature. A dowtherm fluid is a heat transfer fluid , which is a mixture of two very stable compounds, biphenyl and diphenyl oxide. The fluid is dyed clear to light yellow to aid in leak detection. • The hot dowtherm fluid from the reactor is sent to a waste heat recovery boiler to generate steam. • The vapour stream is cooled using a integrated heat exchanger using the unreacted vapour stream generated from an absorber. • The vapour stream is then sent to the heat integrated exchanger and is then sent back to the reactor and a fraction of that is purged to eliminate the accumulation of inerts such as Nitrogen and Argon. • The product vapors are compressed and sent to a water absorber which absorbs ethylene oxide from the feed vapors. Eventually, the ethylene oxide rich water stream is sent to a stripper which desorbs the ethylene oxide + water as vapour and generates the regenerated water as bottom product. The regenerated water reaches the absorber through a heat integrated exchanger. • The ethylene oxide + water vapour mixture is compressed (to about 4 - 5 atms) and then sent to a stripper to generate light ends + H2O as a top product and the bottom product is then sent to another fractionators to produce ethylene oxide as top product. The heavy ends are obtained as bottom product.
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    Why is water vapor a greenhouse gas? You can ▪️ answer this question ▪️ like the best answer ▪️ share to get more answers
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    I am Process/Project Engineer.
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    You cannot measure entropy of any system at any point. You can only measure the change in entropy of system by determining the state of system. Only entropy known is the one given by third law of thermodynamics which says the entropy of perfectly crystalline solid at 0 K temperature is zero.
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    What is the difference between vertical heat Exchanger and horizontal heat Exchanger? You can ▪ Answer this question ▪ Like the best answer ▪ Share to get more answers
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    Version 1.0.0


    Contents HEAT TRANSFER LAW APPLIED TO HEAT EXCHANGERS 2 Heat Transfer by Conduction 3 The Heat Conduction Equation 9 Heat Transfer by Convection 12 Forced Convection 12 Natural Convection 14 Heat Transfer by Radiation 15 Overall heat transfer coefficient 18 Problems 22 DESIGN STANDARDS FOR TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS 23 Size numbering and naming 23 Sizing and dimension 27 Tube-side design 32 Shell-side design 33 Baffle type and spacing 33 General design consideration 35 THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN 37 Design of Single phase heat exchanger 37 Kern’s Method 45 Bell’s method 49 Pressure drop inside the shell and tube heat exchanger 57 Design of Condensers 65 Design of Reboiler and Vaporizers 72 Design of Air Coolers9 85 MECHANICAL DESIGN FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS10 88 Design Loadings 88 Tube-Sheet Design as Per TEMA Standards 90 Design of Cylindrical shell, end closures and forced head 91 References 95