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  1. 7 points



    The handbook is divided into 5 chapters which deal with different phases when designing pump systems. Chapter 1 Design of pumps and motors Chapter 2 Installation and performance reading of pumps Chapter 3 System hydraulics for pumps Chapter 4 Performance adjustment of pumps. Chapter 5 Life cycle costs calculation for pumps
  2. 6 points
    Arun Gupta


    Version 1.0.0


    A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion and transfers heat to water until it becomes hot water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1,600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment and should be treated carefully.Liquid when heated up to the gaseous state this process is called evaporation. The heating surface is any part of the boiler; hot gasses of combustion are on one side and water on the other. Any part of the boiler metal that actually contributes to making steam is heating surface. The amount of heating surface of a boiler is expressed in square meters. The larger the heating surface a boiler has, the more efficient it becomes.
  3. 6 points
    Hi everyone. I'm Ahmed from Iraq Kirkuk I'm a senior of technical engineering of fuel and energy (chemical engineering field) I like to meet new people from all over the world and thanks
  4. 5 points
    Hi ... Myself Devesh Tiwari currently working in Aditya Birla Group as a Process Engineer and have a graduation degree in Chemical Engineering from NIT Jalandhar 2015 batch.
  5. 4 points

    Version 1.0.0


    Contents HEAT TRANSFER LAW APPLIED TO HEAT EXCHANGERS 2 Heat Transfer by Conduction 3 The Heat Conduction Equation 9 Heat Transfer by Convection 12 Forced Convection 12 Natural Convection 14 Heat Transfer by Radiation 15 Overall heat transfer coefficient 18 Problems 22 DESIGN STANDARDS FOR TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS 23 Size numbering and naming 23 Sizing and dimension 27 Tube-side design 32 Shell-side design 33 Baffle type and spacing 33 General design consideration 35 THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN 37 Design of Single phase heat exchanger 37 Kern’s Method 45 Bell’s method 49 Pressure drop inside the shell and tube heat exchanger 57 Design of Condensers 65 Design of Reboiler and Vaporizers 72 Design of Air Coolers9 85 MECHANICAL DESIGN FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS10 88 Design Loadings 88 Tube-Sheet Design as Per TEMA Standards 90 Design of Cylindrical shell, end closures and forced head 91 References 95
  6. 4 points
    Arun Gupta


    Version 1.0.0


    Distillation is a widely used method for separating mixtures based on differences in the conditions required to change the phase of components of the mixture. To separate a mixture of liquids, the liquid can be heated to force components, which have different boiling points, into the gas phase. The gas is then condensed back into liquid form and collected. Repeating the process on the collected liquid to improve the purity of the product is called double distillation. Although the term is most commonly applied to liquids, the reverse process can be used to separate gases by liquefying components using changes in temperature and/or pressure. A plant that performs distillation is called a distillery. The apparatus used to perform distillation is called a still. Distillation.mp4
  7. 4 points

    Version 1.0.0


    The course content will be suitable for a wide range of personnel within a cement manufacturing company including junior/middle management, technicians, production and control room staff, etc and also for others who wish to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complete cement manufacturing process.
  8. 4 points



    Includes two separate downloads in Adobe Acrobat format: Quiz for Heat Exchanger Selection and Design and Good Practices for Heat Exchanger Selection and Design
  9. 4 points
    Direct mixing and heat transfer take place in case of cooling tower while indirect mixing and heat transfer happens in heat exchangers.
  10. 4 points
    Lets make the list of software used by chemical engineers. Also suggest which software should learn during college days. please add software name and its application by replying to this post.
  11. 4 points
    Aspen HYSYS Promax gproms chemcad prosim pdms autocad microsoft visio ( to draw pfd/pid) If you decide to purse education to Master and PhD, you'd better learn matlab, comsul, ansys and labview, but above list is a good ( not complete) one. Recently, I got familiar with below software: mysep to design separator iprsm to design safety valves prv2size to design safety valves ( free software) Iomosaic for process dafety you need both process simulators and equipment designer
  12. 4 points
  13. 3 points



    A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.
  14. 3 points



    Oil refinary processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.
  15. 3 points
    Arun Gupta

    What is the Arrhenius equation used for?

    this explains well http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/basicrates/arrhenius.html
  16. 3 points
    What is the Arrhenius equation used for? You can ▪ Answer this question ▪ Like the best answer ▪ Share to get more answers
  17. 3 points
    What is difference b/w Heat Exchanger & Cooling Tower?
  18. 3 points
  19. 3 points



    Pumps basics
  20. 3 points

    Ethylene oxide and Ethanolamines

    From the album Process Flow Diagrams

    Introduction • Ethylene oxide is produced by the oxidation of ethylene using air. • Ethanolamines are produced using the series reaction scheme of ethylene oxide with ammonia. • Ethanolamines are significantly used as absorbents to remove CO2 and H2S from process gas streams. Reactions • C2 H4 + 0.5 O2→ CH2 O.CH2O • Ethylene to air ratio: 3 – 10 % • Side reaction products: CO2 , H2O • Catalyst: Silver oxide on alumina • Operating temperature and pressure: 250 – 300°C and 120 – 300 psi • Supressing agent for side reactions: Ethylene dichloride • Reaction is exothermic • Air and ethylene are separate compressed and along with recycle stream are sent to the shell and tube reactor. • The reactor is fed on the shell side with Dowtherm fluid that serves to maintain the reaction temperature. A dowtherm fluid is a heat transfer fluid , which is a mixture of two very stable compounds, biphenyl and diphenyl oxide. The fluid is dyed clear to light yellow to aid in leak detection. • The hot dowtherm fluid from the reactor is sent to a waste heat recovery boiler to generate steam. • The vapour stream is cooled using a integrated heat exchanger using the unreacted vapour stream generated from an absorber. • The vapour stream is then sent to the heat integrated exchanger and is then sent back to the reactor and a fraction of that is purged to eliminate the accumulation of inerts such as Nitrogen and Argon. • The product vapors are compressed and sent to a water absorber which absorbs ethylene oxide from the feed vapors. Eventually, the ethylene oxide rich water stream is sent to a stripper which desorbs the ethylene oxide + water as vapour and generates the regenerated water as bottom product. The regenerated water reaches the absorber through a heat integrated exchanger. • The ethylene oxide + water vapour mixture is compressed (to about 4 - 5 atms) and then sent to a stripper to generate light ends + H2O as a top product and the bottom product is then sent to another fractionators to produce ethylene oxide as top product. The heavy ends are obtained as bottom product.
  21. 3 points
    Jay Lokwani

    How can we measure entropy?

    You cannot measure entropy of any system at any point. You can only measure the change in entropy of system by determining the state of system. Only entropy known is the one given by third law of thermodynamics which says the entropy of perfectly crystalline solid at 0 K temperature is zero.
  22. 3 points
    Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences (physics and chemistry) and life sciences (microbiology and biochemistry) together with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy. Essentially, chemical engineers design large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms and energy into useful forms and products. Responsibilities of Chemical Engineers ■ Specifically, chemical engineers improve food processing techniques, and methods of producing fertilizers, to increase the quantity and quality of available food. ■ They also construct the synthetic fibers that make our clothes more comfortable and water resistant; they develop methods to mass-produce drugs, making them more affordable; and they create safer, more efficient methods of refining petroleum products, making energy and chemical sources more productive and cost effective. ■ Chemical engineers also develop solutions to environmental problems, such as pollution control and remediation. ■ And yes, they process chemicals, which are used to make or improve just about everything you see around you. Chemical engineers face many of the same challenges that other professionals face, and they meet these challenges by applying their technical knowledge, communication and teamwork skills; the most up-to-date practices available; and hard work. Benefits include financial reward, recognition within industry and society, and the gratification that comes from working with the processes of nature to meet the needs of society.
  23. 3 points
    Pipephase from schneider (before SimSci) is used for hydraulic calculations in pipe networks. Pro-II ifrom schneider (before SimSci) is used for HMB in refinery, exploration and oil and gas facilities, among others. Aspen Hysis from AspenOne Suite is used for HMB in refinery, exploration and oil and gas facilities, among others with more accuracy depending of the case. AspenPlus from AspenOne is used specifically for petrochemical facilities, ethanol and pharma facilities. Aspen EDR from AspenOne Suite and HTRI is used for thermal design of heat transfer equipments as Shell & Tube, Plate and Frame, Spiral Heat Exchanger, Furnace, Double Tube Heat Exchanger. etc. Korf is used for pump hydraulics system. Pipenet is used for fire fighting pump hydraulics systems as well as AFT Fathom and AFT Sprinkler. Visual flow is used for hydraulic calculation in pipe networks based on isometrics. DinSim, Olga, WinSim are used for cross country pipeline as dynamic calculations. Flarenet, Implant, Flaresim are used for flare analysis including all network. Pha Pro is used for Risk Studies as Hazop, Hazid, SIL as LOPA method). Quest from Canary, PHAST from DNVGL, Breeze from Trinity Consultants, Superchems from iomosaic principally for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Caesar-II is used for pipe flexibility calculations. PVELITE and Compress are used for mechanical design of pressure vessels. TANK and E-Tank are used for mechanical design of API 650 Tanks and API 653. Visio is used for PFD and P&ID drawings as well as AutoCAD, AutoPlant, SPPID. CadWorx and SP3D used for 3D sketch drawings to generate layouts, isometrics, BOM. Others for instruments calculation.
  24. 3 points

    Version 2


    Separation Trains Azeotropes
  25. 3 points
    VAsu Goel


    Version 1.0.0


    Evaporators , how they work, their working principle . all in just one presentation
  26. 3 points
  27. 3 points



    Separation Processes ppt
  28. 3 points

    Version 1.0.0


    Petroleum Refining Engineering-II Course outline 1. Simplified overall crude oil refinery picture 2. Major refinery products and tests: Brief description 3. Separation process: Atmospheric and vacuum distillations, lube oil extraction, dewaxing, deasphalting, and clay treatment. 4. Catalysts used in refinery operations 5. Conversion processes: Brief description of alkylation, polymerization, isomerization of light paraffins, hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, visbreaking of resids, and coking. 5. Material and energy balances for refinery processes: Simulation of refinery processes 6. Design guidelines for the selected refinery equipment
  29. 2 points
    To make available the listing of new appropriate jobs, we want to start a new section.... but before that we want to hear from you on the following points Your participation and reply to this post is important to take the decision to start the same. Which country are you staying in ? What type of job are you looking - Dream profile , dream company How much work experiemce do you have? Can you ask your current company's HR manager to post job openings on the site - This is very important Any suggestions and ideas do you have to get it started ?
  30. 2 points
    I will post the answer soon.....
  31. 2 points
    How can we find any leakage in any tube in shell and tube heat exchanger? You can ▪️ answer this question ▪️ like the best answer ▪️ share to get more answers
  32. 2 points
    Will anybody please answer me the questions in the attached file| Subject:Reaction Engineering
  33. 2 points
    suraj singh

    design software

    Hello sampath For petro design use to ansys fluent software use to analysis all petro equipment body analysis of equipment & further knowledge then u go u tube search ansys fluent
  34. 2 points
    In HE heat transfer through conductions principle and in cooling tower heat transfer through convention principal.
  35. 2 points
  36. 2 points
    In counter flow is thermally stable than parallel flow & less area to require to exchange the energy
  37. 2 points
    Nishil Chauhan

    How fouling affect heat transfer rate?

    Fauling means scaling on the inner or outer side of tube wall..due to increasing the scaling..resistance increase..If you think in common way then You can realize that heat transfer should be decrease by increasing the fauling..and in technical way ,the answers are already given in above comment
  38. 2 points
    Over all heat transfer decreases as increase in fouling factor ( scale).Due to increased scale there will be less heat transfer and hence the performance of heat exchanger lower...
  39. 2 points
    let's make our time valuable by exchanging different ideas about any interesting matter
  40. 2 points
    Calculating heat exchanger effectiveness allows engineers to predict how a given heat exchanger will perform a new job. Essentially, it helps engineers predict the stream outlet temperatures without a trial-and-error solution that would otherwise be necessary. Heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of the actual amount of heat transferred to the maximum possible amount of heat that could be transferred with an infinite area. Two common methods are used to calculate the effectiveness, equations and graphical. The equations are shown below. Eqn(1) Eqn(2) where: U = Overall heat transfer coefficient A = Heat transfer area Cmin = Lower of the two fluid's heat capacities Cmax = Higher of the two fluid's heat capacities Often times, another variable is defined called the NTU (number of transfer units): NTU = UA/Cmin When NTU is placed into the effectiveness equations and they are plotted, you can construct the plots shown below which are more often used than the equations: Fig1: Heat Exchanger Effectiveness for Countercurrent Flow Fig2: Heat Exchanger Effectiveness For Cocurrent Flow Then, by calculating the Cmin/Cmax and the NTU, the effectiveness can be read from these charts. Once the effectiveness has been found, the heat load is calculated by: Q = Effectiveness x Cmin x (Hot Temperature in - Cold Temperature in) For calculating the outlet temperatures we use the equations stated below Eqn(3) Eqn(4)
  41. 2 points
    What is difference between filtration and sedimentation? You can ▪️ answer this question ▪️ like the best answer ▪️ share to get more answers
  42. 2 points
    Various software useful to chem enggs and there applications : chemcad n aspen hyses aspen hysys is used for petrochemical and oil and gas industry, where as aspen plus and chemcad are used for speciality chemical and pharma. These are simulation softwares as u know all these and are basically used for predicting the results for ur system. Please note these are not design s/w. For example u can simulate a exchager in aspen hysys but for designing u need to use HTRI.Similarly there are softwares like korf which are used for pump hydraulics.For doing network hydraulics pipenet is used. For example cooling water network or steam network. For doing cross country pipeline olga can ve used. For sizing flare flarenet is used. For hazop studies one can use pha pro. For flare analysis wrt to burner flaresim is used. Apart from these are other software available like flowmaster this is used for surge analysis. So these are the major software used for designing in oil and gas sector.
  43. 2 points

    Version 1.0.0


    Dimensionless numbers
  44. 2 points
    What is the use of tie rods and spacers in heat exchanger? You can ▪️ answer this question ▪️ like the best answer ▪️ share to get more answers
  45. 2 points
  46. 2 points
    Name : Pankaj Yadav Engineering college : BBD NITM Lucknow Location (City/ Country) : Lucknow / INDIA Engineering Batch : 2012-2016 Engineering Company/ Dream company to work for : NPCIL,ONGC.... Area of Interest : Process Engineering
  47. 2 points
    Name:MUKESH KUMAR Engineering college:GANDHI ENGINEERING COLLEGE Location (City/ Country):BHUBANESWAR Engineering Batch:2014-2016 Engineering Company/ Dream company to work for:DAMODAR VALLEY CORPORATION & TATA Area of Interest:TEACHING,PERFORM RESEARCH VIA EXPERIMENTS Project undertaken:FABRICATION OF COOLING TOWER Any other info you want to share
  48. 2 points



    Energy Balance ppt
  49. 2 points



    Heat Exchangers ppt
  50. 2 points



    About Valves

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