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    How to calculate the shaft diameter when there are multiple impellers (different types)?

    How to calculate the shaft diameter when it is supported by bearings on top and tripod at bottom?

  1. 1. A brief introduction of surfactant

    1.1.  Agrichemicals and Surfactants

    The production process of agrichemicals can not be separated from surfactants, pesticides formulations(eg: EC, water emulsion, microemulsion, wettable powder, soluble powder, dispersible granules, granules, etc.), are always added with different types of surfactants. The addition of surfactants greatly reduces the surface tension of the solution and enhances the wettability, spreadability and adhesion of the agrichmicals in the plant or pest surface, thereby improving the efficacy. Currently main surfactants are: fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene, alkyl phenol polyoxyethylene ether, sulfonates, sulfonates, amides, organic silicon and so on. Surfactant itself doesn’t have efficacy, but its emulsification and spreading will enhance the efficacy.

    1.2.  Application of Surfactants

    Surfactants can be used in two ways:

    1). When PH is between 6 to 8, directly added into pesticide/fungicide/foliar fertilizer formulation as an additive, to form a new formula.  

    2). Mixed with pesticide/fungicide/foliar fertilizer as an adjuvant before use. The first way, there are so many kinds of additives, the application is not introduced here. The second way, currently there are two main categories in the market: A. Gold thimallone, ketone etc; B. Polyether modified trisiloxane(eg, Dow Corning Q2-5211 Silwet L-77, etc.), compared with high gold thimnone and other mixed additives, Organosilicone surfactant not only has a good permeability, but also a good spreadability.

    2. Organosilicone surfactant in agriculture

    2.1.  Features of silicone surfactant

    Organosilicone surfactant has good spreadability and permeability. It makes agricultural chemicals perform better, spread more easily, absorb faster and not easily washed out by rain. In particular, we can achieve ideal spray effect with a small dosage of agrichemicals such as pesticide, fungicide, fertilizer and plant regulators, etc. During the spraying process, it helps save up to 50% water. This will not only save water, but also reduce pesticide residues, thereby release the environmental burden. In application it shows the following characteristics:

    1. Due to low surface tension, it will penetrate into pests through the pores, increase in the efficacy of some contact drugs; or penetrate into plant mesophyll tissue through foliage stoma, promote the efficacy of some systemic drugs.

    2. Good spreadability, improve the utilization of agrichemicals and reduce labor cost;

    3. In the prevention and control of rice planthopper and orchard pest control, effectively spread to the base of rice, the back of the leaves and other difficult-to-spray places;

    4. Good compatibility, can be mixed with a variety of agrichemicals (pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, foliar fertilizer, bio-fertilizer,plant regulators etc.)

    5. Easily hydrolyzed, better used within 4 hours after mixing.

    3. The market analysis of Agricultural Organosilicone surfactant

    3.1.  The advantages of the silicone surfactant determine its great prospects, especially in the fruit, rice, vegetable and other large crops.

    Agricultural Organosilicone Surfactant can effectively ease the problem of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    At present, in spraying process, some farmers are used to high drug concentration and high spray dosage, residual problems then become more prominent. The residue of pesticides will also damage the surrounding soil and groundwater, and result in a vicious cycle. While the international standard of pesticide residues is more and more higher, especially in the developed countries. Food safety issues are also emphasized.Therefore, reducing pesticide becomes an urgent problem to be solved. The application of Organosilicone surfactant  can promote the rational use of pesticides, reduce pesticide residues and improve the fruits and vegetables quality.

    3.2.  Save water, reduce labor intensity

    It is proved that organosilicone surfactant can help save up to 70% water, which no doubt ease the increasing problem of water resources shortage. Compared to traditional surfactant, silicone one has a better penetration effect. Desired outcome can be achieved with a much less spraying amount.Thereby saving costs and reduce the labor tense, especially in arid areas.

    3.3.  It has a certain synergistic effect, can effectively reduce agrichmical dosage.

    * Ruisil RJ-7033 is an organosilicone surfactant with ultra low surface tension and super spreading ability(9 times more than pure water) and is widely used in pesticides,herbicides,fungicides, foliage fertilizer,growth regulator,etc. It can greatly promote penetration and coverage of the agrichmicals,thereby enhancing the efficacy; In addition, it makes agrichmicals hardly washed out by rain. In the end,saves dosage of agrichmicals especially in rainy seasons.

  2. Electrolysis is the process by which Ionic substances are decomposed (broken down) into simpler substances when an electric current is passed through them.
    Ionic substances contains oppositely charged ions and conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water.


    A processor (CPU) is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions
    The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged.


    Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip.
    The internal arrangement of a microprocessor varies depending on the intended purposes of the microprocessor.

    If we look at microprocessor history and its generations, the making of microprocessors have undergone many changes with respect to positioning / placement of circuits

    Pentium I - 0.8µm
    Pentium II - 0.35µm
    Pentium III - 0.18µm
    Pentium IV - 0.18µm

    65 nanometer technology
    22 nanometer technology
    14 nanometer technology


    The smallest commercial chips now use 10nm technology. The first 14 nm scale devices were shipped to consumers by Intel in 2014.

    One nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter.
    1 nm = 1×10−9 m

    Now, the question is how much smaller can we go in making of the processors. Hmmm... as far as possible we cant go smaller then the size of an atom.

    Take any atom its size ranges in picometer (pm) which is 1×10−12 m.

    An atom gets larger as the number of electronic shells increase; therefore the radius of atoms increases as you go down a certain group in the periodic table of elements.
    In general, the size of an atom will decrease as you move from left to the right of a certain period.


    The question is how can we make circuits at such precision.

    Electrolysis is one of the solution where you can prepare base circuit board with pins attached to a device smart enough to supply electricity on each pins as per circuit requirement and expose the IC surface to electrolyte solution to build required circuit.

    Here the circuit board pins will act like an electrode where the charged atoms will react and may get deposited to build required circuit.

    Yeah, you will need to find out proper solution on what element(s)/chemical(s) need to be mixed together depending on their structure and physical properties in distilled water to make a conducting solution for electrolysis.

    This there by gives hope to Moore's Law.

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    Aditya Vikram Singh
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    Both Biot  number and Nusselt number have same formula - (hL/ k).

    But in case of Biot  number this ' k' (thermal conductivity) is of Solid whereas in case of Nusselt number 'k' (thermal conductivity) is of Fluid.


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    Where exactly the Modelling is used in Chemical Industries ?

  3. why do we take intake flow rate in flow systems for all species in terms of flow rate of specie A


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