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Prashant Swami

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  1. Version 1.0.0

    239 downloads

    Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactor. Frequently the term relates specifically to catalytic reaction systems where either a homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst is present in the reactor. Sometimes a reactor per se is not present by itself, but rather is integrated into a process, for example in reactive separations vessels, retorts, certain fuel cells, and photocatalytic surfaces. The issue of solvent effects on reaction kinetics is also considered as an integral part.
  2. Furnaces and Refractories

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    A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating. The name derives from Greek word fornax, which means oven. The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by fuel combustion, by electricity such as the electric arc furnace, or through induction heating in induction furnaces. A refractory material is a material that retains its strength at high temperatures. ASTM C71 defines refractories as "...non-metallic materials having those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 1,000 °F (811 K; 538 °C)."
  3. Version

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    A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. It is the most common type of heat exchanger in oil refineries and other large chemical processes, and is suited for higher-pressure applications. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc.
  4. Waste Heat Recovery

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    205 downloads

    A waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from hot streams with potential high energy content, such as hot flue gases from a diesel generator or steam from cooling towers or even waste water from different cooling processes such as in steel cooling.
  5. Cooling Tower

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    A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower: the main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers. Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 meters (660 ft) tall and 100 meters (330 ft) in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 meters (130 ft) tall and 80 meters (260 ft) long. The hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants,[1] although they are also used in some coal-fired plants and to some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air conditioning.
  6. Oil Refinery Processes

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    145 downloads

    Oil refinary processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products and economic considerations. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.
  7. Troubleshooting Process Operations

    Version 1.0.0

    105 downloads

    Drawing on his passion, training, and experience, Lieberman presents problems and troubleshooting techniques that are associated with specific processes, systems, and equipment, leading novice and practiced troubleshooters alike to the crux of malfunctions and failures. The fourth edition updates troubleshooting and design techniques, and adds seven new chapters with information on turbines, motors, heat exchangers, and environmentally friendly operations. Norm Lieberman sprinkles his troubleshooting guide with insightful and humorous anecdotes from 45 years in the petrochemical and refining industry.Features:* Nitty-gritty descriptions of common refinery and chemical plant problems and the diagnostic field observations, experiments, and calculations that reveal their origin* Troubleshooting checklists and references following each chapter* Practical advice for optimizing interactions with key plant operations personnel
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